- CPR FACTS Posted on July 11, 2011 by CPR Northwest
CPR & Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Fact Sheet
As of April 26, 2010
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
- EMS treats nearly 300,000 victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest each year in the U.S.
- Less than eight percent of people who suffer cardiac arrest outside the hospital survive.
- Sudden cardiac arrest can happen to anyone at any time. Many victims appear healthy with no known heart disease or other risk factors.
- Sudden cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack. Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when electrical impulses in the heart become rapid or chaotic, which causes the heart to suddenly stop beating. A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is blocked. A heart attack may cause cardiac arrest.
- Less than one-third of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest victims receive bystander CPR.
- Effective bystander CPR, provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest, can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival.
- The American Heart Association trains more than 12 million people in CPR annually, including healthcare professionals and the general public.
- The most effective rate for chest compressions is 100 compressions per minute – the same rhythm as the beat of the BeeGee’s song, “Stayin’ Alive.”
- Unless CPR and defibrillation are provided within minutes of collapse, few attempts at resuscitation are successful.
- Even if CPR is performed, defibrillation with an AED is required to stop the abnormal rhythm and restore a normal heart rhythm.
- New technology has made AEDs simple and user-friendly. Clear audio and visual cues tell users what to do when using an AED and coach people through CPR. A shock is delivered only if the victim needs it.
- AEDs are now widely available in public places such as schools, airports and workplaces.
About 5,800 children 18 years old and under suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest each year from all causes – including trauma, cardiovascular causes and sudden infant death syndrome.
- The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest in high school athletes ranges from .28 to 1 death per 100,000 high school athletes annually in the U.S.
- The American Heart Association does not have a minimum age requirement for people to learn CPR. The ability to perform CPR is based more on body strength rather than age.
- Studies have shown that children as young as 9 years old can learn and retain CPR skills.
- Maybe I just don't get it. I must get asked daily if it is true we don't have to give breaths and can just do Hand Only CPR? My standard answer has been NO! I say NO, again. Just when I think the situation is put to rest so I can get on with teaching The American Heart Association releases a marketing piece promoting a "hands only CPR" Kit. Let me show you what AHA released just a few weeks ago as it pertains to "hands only CPR".
It states, "If a bystander is not trained in CPR, the bystander should provide Hands-Only™ (compression-only) CPR for the adult victim who suddenly collapses, with an emphasis to “push hard and fast” on the center of the chest, or follow the directions of the EMS dispatcher. All trained lay rescuers should, at a minimum, provide chest compressions for victims of cardiac arrest. In addition, if the trained lay rescuer is able to perform rescue breaths, compressions and breaths should be provided in a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths."
They go on to clarify, "Hands-Only (compression-only) CPR is easier for an untrained rescuer to perform and can be more readily guided by dispatchers over the telephone. However, for the trained lay rescuer who is able, the recommendation remains for the rescuer to perform both compressions and ventilation's."
Though an argument can be made that some CPR is better than no CPR, There are many more considerations to be made. Such as, is the victim an adult or under age 8? Is this a drowning victim? Is this an unwitnessed or witnessed cardiac arrest. Much more to consider.
Though Scottsdale Arizona Fire Department has seen an increase of success when hands only is applied, one must consider that they are physically more able to withstand the vigor's of hands only.
It is still my opinion that more discussion needs to take place and analysis made of the results for hands only. Hands only assumes you can do chest compressions at 100 plus rate for a long period of time. The two breaths would at least allow the rescuer time to relax their arms, take their own breaths and to prepare for yet another 30 compressions.
In Joyce on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State a Man (age 60) died giving CPR to his wife (age 59). They lived 16 miles east of Port Angeles, WA. I wonder if he was giving breaths or just giving "Hands Only" CPR? The article doesn't say, but I imagine the Ambulance took more than 10 minutes to arrive. This emphasizes that CPR is a physical activity, I question if any one can do CPR without breaths at 100 beats per minute for very long.
Just Think About it.
First U.S. In-Flight AED Save Michael Tighe, 62, and his wife Delores were headed to sunny California from their native
Boston on an American Airlines flight. Delores was scheduled to attend a nursing convention and both planned on visiting
with one of their four daughters. Their travels took a dramatic turn and, lucky for the Tighes, the airline was prepared. "I really don't remember any of it. I was watching the movie and I passed out," says Michael. He collapsed in his seat, one arm falling to the side. Delores knew by the way that his arm dangled that something was wrong. It was obvious Michael had stopped breathing and Delores couldn't get a pulse. She immediately began performing CPR. "Then the flight attendant was there," Delores said, "with this box." As the flight crew and Delores attempted to move Michael to the floor, nearby passengers also offered to help. The flight crew attached the pads of the automated external defibrillator (AED) to Michael's torso. The AED detected a shockable rhythm and verbally instructed the responders to press the shock button. After administering five shocks, Michael began breathing again. Michael Tighe became the first person to be saved in-flight from sudden cardiac arrest. The lifesaving AED had been installed only three days earlier. The Tighes are very familiar with defibrillators and how they can save victims who suffer from sudden cardiac arrest. In fact, Michael, who is community affairs director for the Boston Public Health Commission, has played a key role in driving the city's efforts to place AEDs in
Call 9-1-1! A Mother Uses Infant CPR to Save Her Son
Three pounds, 11 ounces. That's all Nathan weighed when he came into this world. He was the first child of Niki and Gil Maroko. After more than five weeks in the hospital, he came home with his mother and father. But the scares were not over yet. Six days later, Nathan--who was born nine weeks and two days premature--stopped breathing. The Marokos were at Niki's parent's house, relaxing in front of the TV after a home-cooked meal, when it happened.
Niki wrote this story the following day. The former English major who often writes about things in her life--including her earlier miscarriage--says, "I do it for myself. It's my own personal therapy. I also think women need to communicate more with each other about personal matters--real life."
Last night, during nursing, my six-week-old son Nathan made a sputtering sound and let go of me. I figured he was done so I put myself back together and looked down at him. His lips were blue and he didn't look right. I picked him up and put him in an upright position. "He's not breathing! He's not breathing!" I called out to my husband and parents.
He had choked before while drinking a bottle at the hospital, prior to his discharge. The nurse who was there just touched his cheek and he was fine. I remember asking what to do if that didn't work and she had told me to stimulate his back. So I touched Nathan's face and rubbed his back, but he didn't respond. His whole face was turning blue so I called out to my husband and parents: "Call 9-1-1! Call 9-1-1!"
His eyes were glassy and unresponsive
My husband told me to do CPR. I placed Nathan on the couch next to me. He was limp and his whole head was blue. His eyes were slightly open, but they were glossy and unresponsive. All I could think of was, "My baby is dying right in front of me!"
I checked Nathan's breathing. I couldn't see any movement or feel any breath. I kneeled over him and gave him two breaths, placing my mouth over both his nose and mouth. My CPR training was echoing in my head. I couldn't see whether he was breathing, so I unsnapped his clothes to get a better view of his chest. I tilted his head back to open the airway. I tried two breaths again. I still couldn't see if he was getting any air. His whole head was blue and he was completely limp, like a rag doll.
I could hear my mom on the phone with 9-1-1. She told me to get him on the floor. I picked Nathan up, stumbled and fell to my knees before placing him on the carpet. I couldn't see.